How to Implement OOPS Concepts in Java?
Updated On January 16, 2023 | by Austin
Retrace and Prefix, two of Stackify’s most popular tools, support Java as several programming languages and technologies. For the sake of helping Java programmers become good programmers, the article takes you a closer look at some of the language’s fundamental ideas. Java OOP concepts are explained below. However, you can even find a full stack java developer job guarantee program that teaches you the object-oriented programming (OOPs) fundamentals if you want to land a career as a Java developer.
Let’s discuss in-depth the OOPs concepts in Java.
What is OOPS?
OOPs is an Object-Oriented Computer Programming language that employs objects. Real-world concepts like inheritance, hiding, and polymorphism may all be implemented in programming using object-oriented techniques.
List of OOPs Concepts in Java
Java OOPs principles include the following:
- Class: One of the fundamental notions of OOPs is the class, which is a collection of related objects. Physically, it’s just a part of the equation. If you had a class called “Expensive Cars,” it could have objects like Mercedes, BMW, and Toyota. It is one of the OOPs concepts that you can explain with an example. The prices and speeds of these automobiles are examples of their properties (data).
- Object: It is possible to have numerous instances of the same class in the same program. Java’s OOPs concepts include objects, which hold information as well as functions that interact with it. It may be anything from a chair to a bike to an eraser to a pen.
- Inheritance: When one object is derived from another object, it is referred to as inheriting. The method of code reuse is inheritance. The inherited object is the superclass, and the subclass is the object that inherits the superclass.
- Polymorphism: Java OOP allows programmers to use the exact phrase in different contexts, expressing distinct ideas. In Java, method overloading is a polymorphic feature. Method overriding is another option. That’s when the values of the supplied variables indicate various meanings.
- Abstraction: A Java OOP concept known as abstraction expresses a feature’s essence while excluding all the nitty-gritty. You can create a new data type for a specific purpose using this technique. You don’t have to worry about the internal workings of your car when you’re driving it. You need to pay attention to only a few elements here: the steering wheel, gear shifter, and accelerator.
- Encapsulation: As part of object-oriented programming, the code and data it processes are encapsulated. An encapsulation shield protects the data from being accessed by the code that is outside of this shield. Data belonging to one class is not accessible to other types. To get at it, you’ll need to use a member function in the class where it was first declared. In encapsulation, data hiding refers to the fact that the data in one class is not accessible to other classes.
- Association: When two objects come together, they form an association. OOP concepts are defined in Java by explaining the differences between objects. There is no owner in this OOP model, and all objects have their life cycles. For example, a single teacher can have many students, while a single student can associate with several teachers.
- Aggregation: Let us consider the relationship between a group and a person as an illustration. A person may be a member of many groups at the same time. Aggregation is a one-way association, or a one-way relationship, between two or more objects. In Aggregation, both entries can survive independently, so terminating one entity will not affect the remaining entries. As a result, both objects are independent when it comes to Aggregation.
- Composition: Aggregation, on the other hand, is a more general term for this process. A “death” relationship is another name for it. All children will be deleted when a parent object is deleted, as they do not have their lifespan. Let’s take a look at a house and its rooms as an example. There is no limit to the number of rooms in a home. There is no way to split a room into two separate homes. In other words, if you delete the house, the room also gets deleted.
How Java’s Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Concepts Work
The object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts in Java allow programmers to create components that may be reused in various ways while still maintaining security.
How does Abstraction Work?
The OOP concept of abstraction in Java enables programmers to create valuable and reusable tools. A programmer, for example, can build a variety of objects.
How Does Encapsulation Work?
It is possible to reuse functionality without compromising security thanks to encapsulation. In Java, it’s a powerful OOP idea because it saves us time. We could, for example, write a piece of code that queries a database for a specific part of information. Reusing that code in different databases or processes may be beneficial. As long as the original data is protected, we can do so. We can also make changes to the code without affecting those who have already adopted it.
How Does Inheritance Work?
Another time-saving Java OOP feature is inheritance. It accomplishes this by allowing a new class to inherit the properties of an older one. Subclasses or children of the inherited class are referred to as subclasses. When referring to the original class, it is known as the parent. A new class is defined using the term extends when it inherits properties from an older one.
How Does Polymorphism Work?
You must reference an object in a child class to a parent class to implement polymorphism in Java. You could create a class called “horse” by extending the class “animal.” “Professional racing” class may also be implemented as part of this class. ‘Polymorphic,’ as the term implies, describes the “horse class,” which combines characteristics of both animal and “professional racing” classifications in one entity.
When it comes to computer programming, understanding Object-Oriented Programming concepts is essential. The object-oriented programming model can’t be used to develop systems if you don’t understand OOPS concepts.